Clinical target volume delineation quality assurance for MRI-guided prostate radiotherapy using deep learning with uncertainty estimation
Radiotherapy and Oncology
Background and purpose: Previous studies on automatic delineation quality assurance (QA) have mostly focused on CT-based planning. As MRI-guided radiotherapy is increasingly utilized in prostate cancer treatment, there is a need for more research on MRI-specific automatic QA. This work proposes a clinical target volume (CTV) delineation QA framework based on deep learning (DL) for MRI-guided prostate radiotherapy. Materials and methods: The proposed workflow utilized a 3D dropblock ResUnet++ (DB-ResUnet++) to generate multiple segmentation predictions via Monte Carlo dropout which were used to compute an average delineation and area of uncertainty. A logistic regression (LR) classifier was employed to classify the manual delineation as pass or discrepancy based on the spatial association between the manual delineation and the network's outputs. This approach was evaluated on a multicentre MRI-only prostate radiotherapy dataset and compared with our previously published QA framework based on AN-AG Unet. Results: The proposed framework achieved an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.92, a true positive rate (TPR) of 0.92 and a false positive rate of 0.09 with an average processing time per delineation of 1.3 min. Compared with our previous work using AN-AG Unet, this method generated fewer false positive detections at the same TPR with a much faster processing speed. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an automatic delineation QA tool using DL with uncertainty estimation for MRI-guided prostate radiotherapy, which can potentially be used for reviewing prostate CTV delineation in multicentre clinical trials.
Open Access Status
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National Health and Medical Research Council