Synthesis of the Purported Structure of Glyphaeaside C and Proposed Revisions to the Structures of the Glyphaeaside Alkaloids

Publication Name

Journal of Natural Products


The 10 glyphaeaside alkaloids isolated from the roots of Glyphaea brevis were originally purported as piperidine-based 1-C-alkylated iminosugars, with the A-, B-, and C-type glyphaeasides bearing l-DFJ, DGJ, and DNJ ring configurations, respectively. Subsequent investigations have revealed glyphaeaside C as being a pyrrolidine-based iminosugar with a DMDP ring configuration via total synthesis of the revised structure. In this work, side chain diastereomers of the originally purported structure of glyphaeaside C (10) and two related α-1-C-alkylated DNJ derivatives were synthesized from a common precursor, which was prepared in turn via stereoselective Grignard addition to a protected d-glycosylamine, followed by a reductive amination-cyclization sequence. Glycosidase inhibitory activity studies revealed general structure 10 as having potent inhibition against various α-glucosidases and weak inhibition against almond β-glucosidase in agreement with similar DNJ-based iminosugars and in contrast to natural glyphaeaside C, suggesting that the (1,2-dihydroxy-3-phenyl)propyl moiety does not play a particularly vital role in the inhibitory modes of action of either compound. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of natural glyphaeaside C was proposed as that of d-DMDP, and the structures of the A- and B-type glyphaeasides were revised as 1-deoxy-DALDP and DALDP derivatives, respectively, based on interpretation of their reported NMR spectroscopic data.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number

DP 130101968

Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



Link to publisher version (DOI)