Highly Conductive Hierarchical TiO2 Micro-Sheet Enables Thick Electrodes in Sodium Storage

Publication Name

Advanced Functional Materials


TiO2-based materials are considered to be the promising anodes of sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) because of their high safety and good stability. However, their low specific capacity and high safety operating voltage plateau impose a severe challenge for high energy density batteries. Herein, interconnected micro-sheets consisting of carbon nanotubes and sulfur doped TiO2 (CNT/S-TiO2) are synthesized via an ultrasonic process and subsequent calcination, enabling the fabrication of high-performance material. The utilization of SWCNT overcomes the structure instabilities during electrode preparation of thick electrodes. The incorporation of SWCNT and sulfur dopants in the CNT/S-TiO2 composite not only enhances conductivity but also improves ion transport dynamics, resulting in rapid charge delivery and high specific capacity at the thick electrode level. Consequently, CNT/S-TiO2 demonstrates excellent rate performance (from 0.3 to 15 C, with 72.4% capacity retention) and long cycling stability (10000 cycles at a load of 1.96 mg cm−2). More importantly, the high S-TiO2 content (90%) in the thick electrode (21.2 mg cm−2) achieves a high areal capacity retention of 3.4 mA h cm−2 after 100 cycles, which surpasses the actual application requirements.

Open Access Status

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Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council


Link to publisher version (DOI)