Processing issues with inorganic electrocaloric materials and structures
The Electrocaloric Effect: Materials and Applications
The chapter provides an overview of the processing of polar oxides—focusing on perovskite-oxide ferroelectrics, relaxor ferroelectrics, and antiferroelectrics—exhibiting a large electrocaloric effect. These materials exist in the forms of single crystals or polycrystalline materials. They are processed with different sizes and shapes, including as bulk materials, multilayer elements, and thick and thin films. An overview of the synthesis and manufacturing of each of these groups is presented. Specific features associated with each group of materials in relation to the electrocaloric effect are highlighted. Considerations on how to enhance the electrocaloric effect through processing, and/or modification of the chemical/phase composition or domain structure, and/or the microstructure, in the case of polycrystalline materials, are discussed.
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