Boosting the Development of Hard Carbon for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Strategies to Optimize the Initial Coulombic Efficiency

Publication Name

Advanced Functional Materials


Given the merits of affordable cost, superior low-temperature performance, and advanced safe properties, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have exhibited great development potential in large scale energy storage applications. Among various emerging carbonaceous anode materials applied for SIBs, hard carbon (HC) has recently gained significant attention regarding their relatively low cost, wide availability, and optimal overall performance. However, the insufficient initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of HC is the main bottlenecks, which is inevitably hindering their further commercial applications. Herein, an in-depth holistic exposition about the reasons causing the unsatisfied ICE and the recent advances on effective improvement strategies are comprehensively summarized in this review, which have been divided into two aspects including the intrinsic property (degree of graphitization, pore structure, defect, et al.) and the extrinsic factor (electrolyte, electrode materials, et al.). In addition, future prospects and perspectives on HC to enable practical application in SIBs are also briefly outlined.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Natural Science Foundation of Suzhou City



Link to publisher version (DOI)