Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Prescribe a Time to Exercise for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

Publication Name

Journal of Clinical Medicine


This study examines the potential utility of using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to prescribe an exercise time to target peak hyperglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The main aim is to test the feasibility of prescribing an individualised daily exercise time, based on the time of CGM-derived peak glucose, for people with T2D. Thirty-five individuals with T2D (HbA1c: 7.2 ± 0.8%; age: 64 ± 7 y; BMI: 29.2 ± 5.2 kg/m2) were recruited and randomised to one of two 14 d exercise interventions: i) ExPeak (daily exercise starting 30 min before peak hyperglycaemia) or placebo active control NonPeak (daily exercise starting 90 min after peak hyperglycaemia). The time of peak hyperglycaemia was determined via a two-week baseline CGM. A CGM, accelerometer, and heart rate monitor were worn during the free-living interventions to objectively measure glycaemic control outcomes, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), and exercise adherence for future translation in a clinical trial. Participation in MVPA increased 26% when an exercise time was prescribed compared to habitual baseline (p < 0.01), with no difference between intervention groups (p > 0.26). The total MVPA increased by 10 min/day during the intervention compared to the baseline (baseline: 23 ± 14 min/d vs. intervention: 33 ± 16 min/d, main effect of time p = 0.03, no interaction). The change in peak blood glucose (mmol/L) was similar between the ExPeak (−0.44 ± 1.6 mmol/L, d = 0.21) and the NonPeak (−0.39 ± 1.5 mmol/L, d = 0.16) intervention groups (p = 0.92). Prescribing an exercise time based on CGM may increase daily participation in physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes; however, further studies are needed to test the long-term impact of this approach.

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Funding Sponsor

National Health and Medical Research Council



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