“(Im)possible to Prove”: Formalising Academic Judgement Evidence in Contract Cheating Cases Using Bibliographic Forensics

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Contract Cheating in Higher Education: Global Perspectives on Theory, Practice, and Policy


This chapter seeks to improve the detection of contract cheating. It explores, specifically, the role that academic judgement can and should play in this detection process. We argue that the judgement of academic teaching staff is vital to the improvement of detection levels. We use the example of bibliographic forensics to demonstrate how academic teaching staff can provide effective evidentiary support to a contract cheating investigation through the use of their academic judgement. We provide a series of practical examples, exemplars and finally a set of recommendations as to how partnerships between academic staff, information specialists and academic integrity officers can improve the probative value, fairness, transparency and efficiency of upholding academic integrity at educational institutions.

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