Development of softening and melting testing conditions simulating blast furnace operation with hydrogen injection

Publication Name

Ironmaking and Steelmaking


Softening and Melting (S&M) experiments have evolved alongside the blast furnace as a crucial tool for burden characterisation and optimisation. Modern blast furnaces derive a base load of hydrogen from various sources. However, with hydrogen-enrichment of the blast furnace being considered to mitigate emissions, new S&M test conditions are required. In this study, a 2-D axisymmetric CFD model is used to simulate the internal conditions of a modern blast furnace operation, and a future operation with tuyere level hydrogen injection. The model results are used to guide the development of novel S&M test conditions, inclusive of H2, H2O, CO, CO2 and N2. The maximum hydrogen concentration under hydrogen enrichment was 20%, with the hydrogenous fraction of the gas primarily replacing nitrogen. A particular focus was given to the importance of including water vapour in the inlet gas, andits impact on reactions occurring in the S&M test.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access

Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



Link to publisher version (DOI)