Power System Dynamic Performance Analysis Based on Frequency Control by Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Intermittency of renewable energy sources can cause greater frequency variations and with no other intervention, the generation reserve capacity of a power system needs to be significantly increased to ensure frequency stability, resulting in increased costs. With appropriate control actions, proton exchange membrane electrolyzers (PEMELs) can be used to regulate power system frequency stability, but their adjustable demand-side response capabilities need to be investigated. This article first introduces the dynamic characteristics of the PEMEL stack to examine the impact of incorporating the control loop of the PEMEL stack into a single-area power system populated with solar photovoltaic units, taking into account the communication time lag during the control signal transfer process. The dynamic performance of the proposed power system and steady-state errors are then analyzed demonstrating contribution of the PEMEL stack to frequency regulation services effectively. Moreover, the frequency stability of the power system with and without the PEMEL stack is assessed to illustrate improvement in the stability and robustness of the power system during system uncertainties. Numerical studies are used to validate the efficiency of the presented models and approaches.
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