Outcomes of dedicated iliac venous stents during pregnancy and postpartum
Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of dedicated iliac venous stents during subsequent pregnancy and postpartum, including stent patency and stent integrity, as well as incidence of venous thromboembolism and bleeding complications. Methods: This study included retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients attending a private vascular practice. Women of child-bearing age who had received dedicated iliac venous stents were included in a surveillance program and then, for any subsequent pregnancies, followed the same pregnancy care protocol. This included an antithrombotic regime of 100 mg aspirin daily until gestation week 36, and subcutaneous enoxaparin at a dose dependent on risk of thrombosis: low-risk patients, those stented for non-thrombotic iliac vein lesion, received a prophylactic dose of 40 mg/day from the third trimester; high-risk patients, those stented for thrombotic indication, received a therapeutic dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day from the first trimester. All women underwent follow-up with duplex ultrasound assessment of stent patency during pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum. Results: Data was analyzed for a total of 10 women and 13 post-stent pregnancies. Stents were placed for non-thrombotic iliac vein lesions in seven patients, and for post-thrombotic stenoses in three patients. All stents were dedicated venous stents, and four crossed the inguinal ligament. All stents remained patent during pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum, and latest follow-up (median time post-stent, 60 months). There were no cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and no bleeding complications. There was only one reintervention case due to in-stent thrombus, and one case of asymptomatic stent compression. Conclusions: Dedicated venous stents performed well through pregnancy and post-partum. A protocol including the use of low dose antiplatelets in combination with anticoagulation at either a prophylactic or therapeutic dose depending on the patient's risk profile appears safe and effective.
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