Effective Treatments of UTI—Is Intravesical Therapy the Future?
Urinary tract infection (UTI) afflicts millions of patients globally each year. While the majority of UTIs are successfully treated with orally administered antibiotics, the impact of oral antibiotics on the host microbiota is under close research scrutiny and the potential for dysbiosis is a cause for concern. Optimal treatment of UTI relies upon the selection of an agent which displays appropriate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) properties that will deliver appropriately high concentrations in the urinary tract after oral administration. Alternatively, high local concentrations of antibiotic at the urothelial surface can be achieved by direct instillation into the urinary tract. For antibiotics with the appropriate physicochemical properties, this can be of critical importance in cases for which an intracellular urothelial bacterial reservoir is suspected. In this review, we summarise the underpinning biopharmaceutical barriers to effective treatment of UTI and provide an overview of the evidence for the deployment of the intravesical administration route for antibiotics.
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