Application of Artificial Intelligence in Assessing the Self-Management Practices of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
The use of Artificial intelligence in healthcare has evolved substantially in recent years. In medical diagnosis, Artificial intelligence algorithms are used to forecast or diagnose a variety of life-threatening illnesses, including breast cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. The main objective of this study is to assess self-management practices among patients with type 2 diabetes in rural areas of Pakistan using Artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms. Of particular note is the assessment of the factors associated with poor self-management activities, such as non-adhering to medications, poor eating habits, lack of physical activities, and poor glycemic control (HbA1c %). The sample of 200 participants was purposefully recruited from the medical clinics in rural areas of Pakistan. The artificial neural network algorithm and logistic regression classification algorithms were used to assess diabetes self-management activities. The diabetes dataset was split 80:20 between training and testing; 80% (160) instances were used for training purposes and 20% (40) instances were used for testing purposes, while the algorithms’ overall performance was measured using a confusion matrix. The current study found that self-management efforts and glycemic control were poor among diabetes patients in rural areas of Pakistan. The logistic regression model performance was evaluated based on the confusion matrix. The accuracy of the training set was 98%, while the test set’s accuracy was 97.5%; each set had a recall rate of 79% and 75%, respectively. The output of the confusion matrix showed that only 11 out of 200 patients were correctly assessed/classified as meeting diabetes self-management targets based on the values of HbA1c < 7%. We added a wide range of neurons (32 to 128) in the hidden layers to train the artificial neural network models. The results showed that the model with three hidden layers and Adam’s optimisation function achieved 98% accuracy on the validation set. This study has assessed the factors associated with poor self-management activities among patients with type 2 diabetes in rural areas of Pakistan. The use of a wide range of neurons in the hidden layers to train the artificial neural network models improved outcomes, confirming the model’s effectiveness and efficiency in assessing diabetes self-management activities from the required data attributes.
Open Access Status
This publication may be available as open access