Validation of a Phosphorus Food Frequency Questionnaire in Patients with Kidney Failure Undertaking Dialysis

Publication Name



Nutritional guidelines recommended limiting dietary phosphorus as part of phosphorus management in patients with kidney failure. Currently, there is no validated phosphorus food frequency questionnaire (P-FFQ) to easily capture this nutrient intake. An FFQ of this type would facilitate efficient screening of dietary sources of phosphorus and assist in developing a patient-centered treatment plan. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a P-FFQ by comparing it with the 24 hr multi-pass recall. Fifty participants (66% male, age 70 ± 13.3 years) with kidney failure undertaking dialysis were recruited from hospital nephrology outpatient departments. All participants completed the P-FFQ and 24 hr multi-pass recalls with assistance from a renal dietitian and then analysed using nutrient analysis software. Bland–Altman analyses were used to determine the agreement between P-FFQ and mean phosphorus intake from three 24 hr multi-pass recalls. Mean phosphorous intake was 1262 ± 400 mg as determined by the 24 hr multi pass recalls and 1220 ± 348 mg as determined by the P-FFQ. There was a moderate correlation between the P-FFQ and 24 hr multi pass recall (r = 0.62, p = 0.37) with a mean difference of 42 mg (95% limits of agreement: 685 mg; −601 mg, p = 0.373) between the two methods. The precision of the P-FFQ was 3.33%, indicating suitability as an alternative to the 24 hr multi pass recall technique. These findings indicate that the P-FFQ is a valid, accurate, and precise tool for assessing sources of dietary phosphorus in people with kidney failure undertaking dialysis and could be used as a tool to help identify potentially problematic areas of dietary intake in those who may have a high serum phosphate.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access





Article Number




Link to publisher version (DOI)