A state-of-the art review on advancing battery thermal management systems for fast-charging

Publication Name

Applied Thermal Engineering


Electric vehicles (EVs) can significantly reduce pollution and dependence on fossil fuels by taking the place of conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. Owing to the higher sensitivity of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) towards working temperatures, thermal management of the battery is necessary for guaranteeing longer-cycle life, higher performance, and the safe operation of EV power systems. Moreover, increasing the rate capability of LIB is highly advantageous to the expediency of EVs application. During the higher charging process, Li-inventory loss, and thermal runaway are pretty obvious. Thus, an effective and advanced battery management system (BTMS) is required to control and dissipate the generated heat from battery cells/pouches/modules. From this perspective, the present review summarizes the latest developments in advanced LIB thermal management for high charge/discharge cycles. Firstly, the severe thermal issue caused by high temperature during fast charging rate and its effect on performance degradation and thermal runway are discussed. The existing advanced BTMS such as cold plate, composite phase change materials (PCMs), hybrid BTMS with PCMs and liquid cooling, and heat pipes are then elaborately presented in the view of fast charging/discharging rate along with the pros and cons. Some new and efficient emerging BTMS, such as refrigerant, thermo-electric and immersion cooling methods for the future BTMS are analyzed. In order to satisfy the thermal requirements, predominantly in dynamic conditions through fast charging rate along with extreme power fluctuations, a combined active and passive cooling mode for BTMS is suggested. This state-of-the-art critical review provides recommendations for the development of advanced BTMS for the batteries under fast charging.

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