Factors influencing organised faecal occult blood test screening participation in culturally and linguistically diverse populations: a scoping review
Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature examining factors influencing participation in organised faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening programmes in culturally and linguistically diverse populations. This article addresses gaps in the literature by providing a mixed methods review of the multilevel influences on FOBT screening in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations. This review was guided by the question “What are the factors influencing participation in organised FOBT screening programs in CALD populations?” Study design: Scoping review. Methods: A scoping review methodology was used to summarise the available evidence. A thematic analysis of the included studies was undertaken to identify factors influencing organised FOBT screening participation in CALD populations from the literature. Results: FOBT screening participation was lower by ethnicity, religion, birthplace and language spoken. Barriers to screening included, faecal aversion, fatalism, fear of cancer, language and literacy barriers, difficulty accessing translated materials and low colorectal screening knowledge and awareness. CALD populations also had lower perceived benefits, susceptibility and cues to action, higher perceived barriers and greater perceived external health locus control than non-CALD populations. Facilitators of screening included positive attitudes to screening, general practitioner recommendations and social support. Group education sessions and narrative-based screening information were found to increase screening participation. Conclusion: This review highlights the range of interrelated factors influencing participation in organised FOBT screening programmes in CALD populations and proposes multicomponent interventions to address low screening uptake. Features of successful community-level interventions should be explored further. Narratives show promise for engaging CALD populations. Accessibility of screening information should be addressed at the system level. Leveraging the general practitioner relationship in promoting FOBT screening programmes may also be an effective strategy to target ‘hard-to-reach’ populations.
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