A geospatial assessment of flood hazard in north-eastern depressed basin, Bangladesh
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography
Floods are a frequently occurring calamity in deltaic Bangladesh. This paper aims to assess the temporal expansion of waterbodies during flooding using geospatial techniques. Several water indices were applied to classify the satellite images at various temporal scales. Among them, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) showed the highest correlation (r = 0.831; where p = 0.01) with rainfall data. Specifically, the NDWI results showed that perennial waterbodies measured 37 km2 and 60 km2 in Sunamganj District in 2017 and 2019, respectively. The area of waterbodies notably increased 52-fold from March to April (37 km2 to 1958 km2) during the pre-monsoon flash flood of 2017. During the July 2019 monsoon flood, waterbodies started to extend after May and flooded 2784 km2 in area. NDVI analysis showed that in 2019, floodwater submerged 361.7 km2 of vegetation cover. At the same time, the Surma River's flooding resulted in a 73.9 per cent inundation of the total area of the Sunamganj District. We hope that this study will provide better understanding of the varying nature of floods that occur in the low lying bowl shaped Haor region which will in turn assist the government with flood mitigation.
Open Access Status
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National Aeronautics and Space Administration