A Geant4 shielding design for the first US carbon multi-ion hybrid synchrotron facility

Publication Name

Physics in Medicine and Biology


The Mayo Clinic Florida Integrated Oncology Building will be the home of the first spot-scanning only carbon/proton hybrid therapy system by Hitachi, Ltd. It will provide proton beams up to kinetic energies of 230 MeV and carbon beams up to 430 MeV n−1 for clinical deployment. To provide adequate radiation protection, the Geant4 (v10.6) Monte Carlo toolkit was utilized to quantify the ambient dose equivalent at a 10 mm depth (H*(10)) for photons and neutrons. To perform accurate calculations of the ambient dose equivalent, three-dimensional computer-aided design files of the entire planned facility were imported into Geant4, as well as certain particle system components such as the bending magnets, fast Faraday cup, and gantry. Particle fluence was scored using 60 cm diameter spheres, which were strategically placed throughout areas of interests. Analytical calculations were performed as first-pass design checks. Major shielding slabs were optimized using Geant4 simulations iteratively, with more than 20 alternative designs evaluated within Geant4. The 430 MeV n−1 carbon beams played the most significant role in concrete thickness Requirements. The primary wall thickness for the carbon fixed beam room is 4 meters. The presence of the proton gantry structure in the simulation caused the ambient dose equivalent to increase by around 67% at the maze entrance, but a decrease in the high energy beam transport corridor. All shielding primary and secondary goals for clinical operations were met per state regulation and national guidelines.

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Article Number


Funding Sponsor

National Computational Infrastructure



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