Experimental study of DED-arc additively manufactured steel double-lap shear bolted connections

Publication Name

Engineering Structures


An experimental study into the structural behaviour of Directed Energy Deposition-arc or wire arc additively manufactured (DED-arc AM and WAAM, respectively) steel double-lap shear bolted connections is presented. The mechanical properties of the material, which had a nominal yield stress of 420 MPa, were first determined by means of tensile coupon tests. Sixty connection specimens of two different nominal thicknesses and two print layer orientations were then tested to failure. The geometry of the test specimens was determined by 3D laser scanning, while the deformation and strain fields were measured during testing using digital image correlation. The observed failure modes included shear-out, net section tension, bearing and end-splitting, while a new hybrid mode of shear-out and net section tension was identified for the first time. The test results were compared against the predictions of current design specifications, namely AISI S100 and AS/NZS 4600 for cold-formed steel and AISC 360 and Eurocode 3 for structural steel, to evaluate their applicability to WAAM elements. Overall, the structural behaviour of the tested specimens followed the anticipated trends, and the predicted resistances determined from the current design specifications were generally reasonable. There were, however, a number of exceptions to this, highlighting the need for new design provisions, together with appropriate safety factors, that are specific to this form of manufacture.

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Funding Sponsor

Horizon 2020 Framework Programme



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