First insight into oral microbiome diversity in Papua New Guineans reveals a specific regional signature
The oral microbiota is a highly complex and diversified part of the human microbiome. Being located at the interface between the human body and the exterior environment, this microbiota can deepen our understanding of the environmental impacts on the global status of human health. This research topic has been well addressed in Westernized populations, but these populations only represent a fraction of human diversity. Papua New Guinea hosts very diverse environments and one of the most unique human biological diversities worldwide. In this study we performed the first known characterization of the oral microbiome in 85 Papua New Guinean individuals living in different environments, using a qualitative and quantitative approach. We found a significant geographical structure of the Papua New Guineans oral microbiome, especially in the groups most isolated from urban spaces. In comparison to other global populations, two bacterial genera related to iron absorption were significantly more abundant in Papua New Guineans and Aboriginal Australians, which suggests a shared oral microbiome signature. Further studies will be needed to confirm and explore this possible regional-specific oral microbiome profile.
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Laboratoire d'Excellence TULIP