GAME: Generative-Based Adaptive Model Extraction Attack

Publication Name

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)


The outstanding performance of deep learning has prompted the rise of Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS), which significantly reduces the difficulty for users to train and deploy models. For privacy and security considerations, most models in the MLaaS scenario only provide users with black-box access. However, previous works have shown that this defense mechanism still faces potential threats, such as model extraction attacks, which aim at stealing the function or parameters of a black-box victim model. To further study the vulnerability of publicly deployed models, we propose a novel model extraction attack named Generative-Based Adaptive Model Extraction (GAME), which augments query data adaptively in a sample limited scenario using auxiliary classifier GANs (AC-GAN). Compared with the previous work, our attack has the following advantages: adaptive data generation without original datasets, high fidelity, high accuracy, and high stability under different data distributions. According to extensive experiments, we observe that: (1) GAME poses a threat to victim models despite the model architectures and the training sets; (2) synthetic samples closed to decision boundary without deviating from the center of the target distribution can accelerate the extraction process; (3) compared to state-of-the-art work, GAME improves relative accuracy by 12% at much lower data and query costs without the reliance on domain relevance of proxy datasets.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access


13554 LNCS

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Funding Sponsor

National Natural Science Foundation of China



Link to publisher version (DOI)