Localization of nanospheres in pheochromocytoma-like cells following exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields at 18 GHz
Royal Society Open Science
Exposure to high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at 18 GHz was previously found to induce reversible cell permeabilization in eukaryotic cells; however, the fate of internalized foreign objects inside the cell remains unclear. Here, silica core-shell gold nanospheres (Au NS) of 20 ± 5 nm diameter were used to study the localization of Au NS in pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells after exposure to HF EMFs at 18 GHz. Internalization of Au NS was confirmed using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Analysis based on corresponding scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed the presence of the Au NS free within the PC 12 cell membrane, cytoplasm, enclosed within intracellular vesicles and sequestered in vacuoles. The results obtained in this work highlight that exposure to HF EMFs could be used as an efficient technique with potential for effective delivery of drugs, genetic material, and nanomaterials into cells for the purpose of cellular manipulation or therapy.
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