Inclusion of Biological and Chemical Self-Heating Processes in Compost Piles Model: A Semenov Formulation
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos
In this study, a uniformly distributed mathematical model for the self-heating process within compost piles is formulated and investigated. It consists of mass balance equations for oxygen and energy as well as the heat-generation processes due to both biological and chemical activities. This model is an extension of the study of Luangwilai et al.  which consists of only biological activity. The singularity and degenerate Hopf bifurcation theories are used to determine the loci of different singularities: the isola, cusp, double-limit points and boundary limit set as well as the double-Hopf, generalized Hopf (Bautin) and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations. In this investigation it is found that these loci separate the secondary parameter plane into twenty-two regions of different steady-state solution behaviors, whereas the model in the earlier study reported only eight regions. With more topological detail in the parameter space, a clearer understanding of the thermal behavior of a compost pile can be obtained, thus assisting compost operators in controlling the temperature within the pile more effectively: for example, achieving desirable elevated temperature range for ideal composting conditions via periodic solutions and S-shaped solution branch, or alternatively, understanding conditions, if not monitored carefully, that can also increase the likelihood of spontaneous ignition within the pile.
Open Access Status
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