Performance Evaluation of Force Transducer for the Observation of Sediment Entrainment in Rapidly Varied Flows
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
Direct measurement of forces within the rough bed layer have been limited by previous spatial-averaging shear force studies. A highly sensitive force transducer assembled with a target sphere was used to measure and record the instantaneous three-dimensional forces of sediment at incipient motion. In the current study, a laser Doppler anemometer, ultrasonic displacement meter, and a force transducer accompanied by video recordings were used to experimentally investigate the incipient motion of sediment. The developed experimental setup have the potential to resolve and improve fundamental classical hypotheses regarding the incipient sediment motion. Experiments conducted in a large recirculating flume verified that the force transducer detects instantaneous forces at incipient motion under varies hydrodynamic conditions. Depth time series, instantaneous horizontal, vertical, and lateral forces are presented for dam-break and tidal breaking bores. Evidence suggests that the uplift vertical force plays an important role in destabilizing and in the incipient motion of particles. A sudden decrease in horizontal force was observed in tidal breaking bore due to flow reversal; how-ever, a rapid rise was observed due to initial impact of dam-break bore. Bore velocity seems to have a larger effect on dam-break force than bore height. Furthermore, lateral force has the least influence during tidal breaking bore, while sediment particles are subjected to additional lateral force during dam-break bore.
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