Co-creating safe spaces: Study protocol for translational research on innovative alternatives to the emergency department for people experiencing emotional distress and/ or suicidal crisis

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Introduction Safe spaces are an alternative to emergency departments, which are often unable to provide optimum care for people experiencing emotional distress and/or suicidal crisis. At present, there are several different safe space models being trialled in Australia. However, research examining the effectiveness of safe space models, especially in community settings, is rare. In this paper, we present a protocol for a study in which we will investigate the implementation, effectiveness, and sustainability of safe space models as genuine alternatives for people who might usually present to the emergency department or choose not to access help due to past negative experiences. Material and methods We will use a mixed methods, co-designed study design, conducted according to the principles of community-based participatory research to obtain deep insights into the benefits of different safe space models, potential challenges, and facilitators of effective practice. We developed the study plan and evaluation framework using the RE-AIM framework, and this will be used to assess key outcomes related to reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Data collection will comprise quantitative measures on access, use, satisfaction, (cost) effectiveness, distress, and suicidal ideation; and qualitative assessments of service implementation, experience, feasibility, acceptability, community awareness, and the fidelity of the models to service co-design. Data will be collected and analysed concurrently throughout the trial period of the initiatives. Discussion This study will enable an extensive investigation of safe spaces that will inform local delivery and provide a broader understanding of the key features of safe spaces as acceptable and effective alternatives to hospital-based care for people experiencing emotional distress and/ or suicidal crisis. This study will also contribute to a growing body of research on the role and benefits of peer support and provide critical new knowledge on the successes and challenges of service co-design to inform future practice.

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10 October

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National Health and Medical Research Council



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