Insect nephrocyte function is regulated by a store operated calcium entry mechanism controlling endocytosis and Amnionless turnover
Journal of Insect Physiology
Insect nephrocytes are ultrafiltration cells that remove circulating proteins and exogenous toxins from the haemolymph. Experimental disruption of nephrocyte development or function leads to systemic impairment of insect physiology as evidenced by cardiomyopathy, chronic activation of immune signalling and shortening of lifespan. The genetic and structural basis of the nephrocyte's ultrafiltration mechanism is conserved between arthropods and mammals, making them an attractive model for studying human renal function and systemic clearance mechanisms in general. Although dynamic changes to intracellular calcium are fundamental to the function of many cell types, there are currently no studies of intracellular calcium signalling in nephrocytes. In this work we aimed to characterise calcium signalling in the pericardial nephrocytes of Drosophila melanogaster. To achieve this, a genetically encoded calcium reporter (GCaMP6) was expressed in nephrocytes to monitor intracellular calcium both in vivo within larvae and in vitro within dissected adults. Larval nephrocytes exhibited stochastically timed calcium waves. A calcium signal could be initiated in preparations of adult nephrocytes and abolished by EGTA, or the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) blocker 2-APB, as well as RNAi mediated knockdown of the SOCE genes Stim and Orai. Neither the presence of calcium-free buffer nor EGTA affected the binding of the endocytic cargo albumin to nephrocytes but they did impair the subsequent accumulation of albumin within nephrocytes. Pre-treatment with EGTA, calcium-free buffer or 2-APB led to significantly reduced albumin binding. Knock-down of Stim and Orai was non-lethal, caused an increase to nephrocyte size and reduced albumin binding, reduced the abundance of the endocytic cargo receptor Amnionless and disrupted the localisation of Dumbfounded at the filtration slit diaphragm. These data indicate that pericardial nephrocytes exhibit stochastically timed calcium waves in vivo and that SOCE mediates the localisation of the endocytic co-receptor Amnionless. Identifying the signals both up and downstream of SOCE may highlight mechanisms relevant to the renal and excretory functions of a broad range of species, including humans.
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