Real-Time Step Length Estimation in Indoor and Outdoor Scenarios
In this paper, human step length is estimated based on the wireless channel properties and the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) method. The path loss between two ankles, called the on-ankle path loss, is converted from the RSSI, which is measured by our developed wearable hardware in indoor and outdoor ambulation scenarios. The human walking step length is estimated by a reliable range of RSSI values. The upper threshold and the lower threshold of this range are determined experimentally. This paper advances our previous step length measurement technique by proposing a novel exponential weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm to update the upper and lower thresholds, and thus the step length estimation, recursively. The EWMA algorithm allows our measurement technique to process each shorter subset of the dataset, called a time window, and estimate the step length, rather than having to process the whole dataset at a time. The step length is periodically updated on the fly when the time window is “sliding” forwards. Thus, the EWMA algorithm facilitates the step length estimation in real-time. The impact of the EWMA parameter is analysed, and the optimal parameter is discovered for different experimental scenarios. Our experiments show that the EWMA algorithm could achieve comparable accuracy as our previously proposed technique with errors as small as 3.02% and 0.30% for the indoor and outdoor scenarios, respectively, while the processing time required to output an estimation of the step length could be significantly shortened by 53.96% and 60% for the indoor walking and outdoor walking, respectively.
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