Bipolar Electrochemical Stimulation Using Conducting Polymers for Wireless Electroceuticals and Future Directions
ACS Applied Bio Materials
Electrochemistry has become a powerful strategy to modulate cellular behavior and biological activity by manipulating electrical signals. Subsequent electrical stimulus-responsive conducting polymers (CPs) have advanced traditional wired electrochemical stimulation (ES) systems and developed wireless cell stimulation systems due to their electroconductivity, biocompatibility, stability, and flexibility. Bipolar electrochemistry (BPE), i.e., wireless electrochemistry, offers an effective pathway to modify wired ES systems into a desirable contactless mode, turning out a potential technique to offer fundamental insights into neural cell stimulation and neural network formation. This review commences with a brief discussion of the BPE technique and also the advantages of a bipolar electrochemical stimulation (BPES) system compared to traditional wired ES systems and other wireless ES systems. Then, the BPES system is elucidated through four aspects: the benefits of BPES, the key factors to establish BPES platforms for cell stimulation, the limits/barriers to overcome for current rigid materials in particular metals-based systems, and a brief overview of the concept proved by CPs-based systems. Furthermore, how to refine the existing BPES system from materials/devices modification that combine CP compositions with 3D fabrication/bioprinting technologies is elaborately discussed as well. Finally, the review ends together with future research directions, picturing the potential of BPES system in biomedical applications.
Open Access Status
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Australian National Fabrication Facility