Manifestation and management of intravenous leiomyomatosis: A systematic review of the literature
Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is characterized by the presence of vascular extension and invasion of benign smooth muscle lesions in a worm-like manner from uterine fibroids into the systemic vasculature system. Surgery with complete tumour resection remains the main treatment approach, however both treated and untreated of this disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review is to highlight the systemic manifestations and surgical management of IVL.
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