Genetic Variants and Protective Immunity against SARS-CoV-2

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The novel coronavirus-19 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected numerous individuals worldwide, resulting in millions of fatalities. The pandemic spread with high mortality rates in multiple waves, leaving others with moderate to severe symptoms. Co-morbidity variables, including hypertension, diabetes, and immunosuppression, have exacerbated the severity of COVID-19. In addition, numerous efforts have been made to comprehend the pathogenic and host variables that contribute to COVID-19 susceptibility and pathogenesis. One of these endeavours is understanding the host genetic factors predisposing an individual to COVID-19. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have demonstrated the host predisposition factors in different populations. These factors are involved in the appropriate immune response, their imbalance influences susceptibility or resistance to viral infection. This review investigated the host genetic components implicated at the various stages of viral pathogenesis, including viral entry, pathophysiological alterations, and immunological responses. In addition, the recent and most updated genetic variations associated with multiple host factors affecting COVID-19 pathogenesis are described in the study.

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