In-situ observation of nucleation, growth and interaction of deformation-induced α martensite in metastable Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al

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Materials Science and Engineering A


Microstructure evolution, dominated by the formation of deformation-induced α martensite during the 3-point bending of a metastable β Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al alloy containing 5% α, was observed in-situ using forward-scatter electron imaging and electron backscattering diffraction. α plates nucleated heterogeneously from {580} habit planes at α-β interfaces and triggered the nucleation of additional α plates at the advancing interface during growth and upon impingement with high-angle boundaries. Further thickening of the impinged α plates led to a build-up of strain energy which induced 13031‾0 twinning within obstacle-forming α plates. Until now, this twinning system was observed in Nb and Ta alloyed Ti shape memory alloys only. This in-situ study is also the first to document the activation of 13031‾0 twinning by α impingement in a metastable β matrix. The first forming variants were {011} compound twin-related variant pairs, each forming from up to two individual habit planes. These variant pairs were consistently predicted by determining the grain-average stress with finite element analysis and computing the available work from the transformation strain of the α variants. At higher indenter loads, grains that were unfavourably oriented to martensite formation accommodated the local stress by forming aggregates of different α variants, obeying either {111} type I or 211 type II twin relationships. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed α substructures comprising columnar domains oriented perpendicular to the habit plane along with the absence of lattice invariant deformation. The growth of α plates involved ledge formation at α -β interfaces. ″ ″ ″ ″ ″ '' ″ '' ″ ″ ″ ″ ″ '' ″ ″ ″ α α α α α α

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Natur og Univers, Det Frie Forskningsråd



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