Enhanced Message Replication Technique for DTN Routing Protocols

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Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) are networks where there is no immediate connection between the source and the destination. Instead, nodes in these networks use a store–carry–forward method to route traffic. However, approaches that rely on flooding the network with unlimited copies of messages may not be effective if network resources are limited. On the other hand, quota-based approaches are more resource-efficient but can have low delivery rates and high delivery delays. This paper introduces the Enhanced Message Replication Technique (EMRT), which dynamically adjusts the number of message replicas based on a node’s ability to quickly disseminate the message. This decision is based on factors such as current connections, encounter history, buffer size history, time-to-live values, and energy. The EMRT is applied to three different quota-based protocols: Spray and Wait, Encounter-Based Routing (EBR), and the Destination-Based Routing Protocol (DBRP). The simulation results show that applying the EMRT to these protocols improves the delivery ratio, overhead ratio, and latency average. For example, when combined with Spray and Wait, EBR, and DBRP, the delivery probability is improved by 13%, 8%, and 10%, respectively, while the latency average is reduced by 51%, 14%, and 13%, respectively.

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