Rescue of High Glucose Impairment of Cultured Human Osteoblasts Using Cinacalcet and Parathyroid Hormone
Calcified Tissue International
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience a higher risk of fractures despite paradoxically exhibiting normal to high bone mineral density (BMD). This has drawn into question the applicability to T2DM of conventional fracture reduction treatments that aim to retain BMD. In a primary human osteoblast culture system, high glucose levels (25 mM) impaired cell proliferation and matrix mineralization compared to physiological glucose levels (5 mM). Treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH, 10 nM), a bone anabolic agent, and cinacalcet (CN, 1 µM), a calcimimetic able to target the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR), were tested for their effects on proliferation and differentiation. Strikingly, CN+PTH co-treatment was shown to promote cell growth and matrix mineralization under both physiological and high glucose conditions. CN+PTH reduced apoptosis by 0.9-fold/0.4-fold as measured by Caspase-3 activity assay, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression by 1.5-fold/twofold, increased the ratio of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) by 2.1-fold/1.6-fold, and increased CaSR expression by 1.7-fold/4.6-fold (physiological glucose/high glucose). Collectively, these findings indicate a potential for CN+PTH combination therapy as a method to ameliorate the negative impact of chronic high blood glucose on bone remodeling.
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