Atomically Dispersed Dual-Site Cathode with a Record High Sulfur Mass Loading for High-Performance Room-Temperature Sodium–Sulfur Batteries
Room-temperature sodium–sulfur (RT-Na/S) batteries possess high potential for grid-scale stationary energy storage due to their low cost and high energy density. However, the issues arising from the low S mass loading and poor cycling stability caused by the shuttle effect of polysulfides seriously limit their operating capacity and cycling capability. Herein, sulfur-doped graphene frameworks supporting atomically dispersed 2H-MoS2 and Mo1 (S@MoS2-Mo1/SGF) with a record high sulfur mass loading of 80.9 wt.% are synthesized as an integrated dual active sites cathode for RT-Na/S batteries. Impressively, the as-prepared S@MoS2-Mo1/SGF display unprecedented cyclic stability with a high initial capacity of 1017 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a low-capacity fading rate of 0.05% per cycle over 1000 cycles. Experimental and computational results including X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and density-functional theory calculations reveal that atomic-level Mo in this integrated dual-active-site forms a delocalized electron system, which could improve the reactivity of sulfur and reaction reversibility of S and Na, greatly alleviating the shuttle effect. The findings not only provide an effective strategy to fabricate high-performance dual-site cathodes, but also deepen the understanding of their enhancement mechanisms at an atomic level.
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Australian Research Council