Acute kidney injury increases risk of kidney stones-a retrospective propensity score matched cohort study

Publication Name

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common. An episode of AKI may modify the risk of developing kidney stones by potential long-term effects on urine composition. We aimed to investigate the association between AKI and the risk of kidney stone presentations. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study used patient data (1 January 2008-31 December 2017), from an Australian Local Health District, which included AKI diagnosis, demographics, comorbidities and kidney stone admissions. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards and propensity-matched analysis were used to determine the impact of AKI on the risk of kidney stones. To address possible population inhomogeneity in comparisons between no AKI and hospitalized AKI, sub-group analysis was done comparing inpatient and outpatient AKI versus no AKI, to assess consistency of association with future stones. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to capture the impact of a known AKI status and AKI severity. RESULTS: Out of 137 635 patients, 23 001 (17%) had an AKI diagnosis and 2295 (2%) had kidney stone presentations. In the unadjusted analysis, AKI was associated with kidney stones, with AKI used as a time-varying exposure, [hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.50)]. Both inpatient-AKI (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.39) and outpatient-AKI (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.94) were significantly associated with future stones compared to no AKI subjects. This association persisted in the adjusted analysis (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.66), propensity-matched dataset (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.40-1.99) and sensitivity analysis. There was a dose-response relationship with higher stages of AKI being associated with a greater risk of kidney stones. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients, AKI is associated with a greater risk of kidney stones, which increases with higher stages of AKI. This association should be examined in other cohorts and populations for verification.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access





First Page


Last Page


Funding Sponsor

University of Wollongong



Link to publisher version (DOI)