Acute kidney injury increases risk of kidney stones-a retrospective propensity score matched cohort study
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common. An episode of AKI may modify the risk of developing kidney stones by potential long-term effects on urine composition. We aimed to investigate the association between AKI and the risk of kidney stone presentations. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study used patient data (1 January 2008-31 December 2017), from an Australian Local Health District, which included AKI diagnosis, demographics, comorbidities and kidney stone admissions. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards and propensity-matched analysis were used to determine the impact of AKI on the risk of kidney stones. To address possible population inhomogeneity in comparisons between no AKI and hospitalized AKI, sub-group analysis was done comparing inpatient and outpatient AKI versus no AKI, to assess consistency of association with future stones. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to capture the impact of a known AKI status and AKI severity. RESULTS: Out of 137 635 patients, 23 001 (17%) had an AKI diagnosis and 2295 (2%) had kidney stone presentations. In the unadjusted analysis, AKI was associated with kidney stones, with AKI used as a time-varying exposure, [hazard ratio (HR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.50)]. Both inpatient-AKI (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.39) and outpatient-AKI (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.94) were significantly associated with future stones compared to no AKI subjects. This association persisted in the adjusted analysis (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.66), propensity-matched dataset (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.40-1.99) and sensitivity analysis. There was a dose-response relationship with higher stages of AKI being associated with a greater risk of kidney stones. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients, AKI is associated with a greater risk of kidney stones, which increases with higher stages of AKI. This association should be examined in other cohorts and populations for verification.
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University of Wollongong