Slag Flow in the Packed Bed With Varied Properties and Bed Conditions: Numerical Investigation

Publication Name

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science


Molten slag, which is primarily generated in the blast furnace (BF) cohesive zone, trickles down through the coke packed bed in the form of films, rivulets, or droplets in the lower zone of the BF. During its downward flow, there are significant interactions occurring between slag and other phases such as gas, coke particles, hot metal, and fine powders. In terms of these interactions, slag flow behavior can greatly affect BF productivity and be associated with furnace irregularities such as channeling, hanging, and slipping. Hence, understanding the interactions between phases is useful to maximizing BF efficiency in terms of operating cost, reliability, and production capacity. In the current study, a Volume of Fluid (VOF) modeling technique was applied to track the movement of individual slag droplets in the packed bed at a mesoscopic level, considering various bed permeabilities, more wide-ranging slag properties, and different wettability between slag and packing particles. Results demonstrate the significant role of modeling at a mesoscopic level in understanding macroscopic slag flow behavior. Modeling work helps to visualize the trickling behavior of slag droplets in more realistic and complex conditions representing a BF, and clarify the mechanisms of the different flow patterns generated for variations in operating conditions. Transient flow characteristics such as localized slag accumulation and droplet morphology were identified and analyzed in relation to complex condition changes. The current modeling proved to be a valuable tool to provide a foundation for better understanding the slag flow behavior and its interactions with other phases in the BF lower zone.

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National Computational Infrastructure



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