A comprehensive laboratory measurement on the thermal characteristics of Ag–CuO–tungsten oxide/water nanofluid in mono, hybrid and ternary cases and presenting a new correlation
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
Background: This study investigates the thermal conductivities of the Ag–CuO–tungsten oxide/water ternary hybrid nanofluids (THNFs) with mixing ratios of 20, 45 and 35%, Ag-tungsten oxide/water, Ag-CuO/water, tungsten oxide-CuO/water hybrid nanofluids (HNFs) (with 50% mixing ratio), and Ag/water, CuO/water, and tungsten oxide/water mono nanofluids (MNFs) in a laboratory. Methods: Using the two-step method, the nanofluids (NFs) are fabricated by dispersing nanoparticles (NPs) in base fluids. THNFs are formed in volume fractions φ =0.1–0.4% and MNFs and HNFs are made in φ=0.1 and 0.3%. After ensuring NF stability, thermal conductivity (TC) is measured within T = 20–50 °C. The results show that raising temperature increases TC. Moreover, increasing φ increases TC; and increasing temperature has a greater effect in higher φ. The results suggest that the Ag/water MNF in the φ=0.4% and T = 50 °C has the highest TC with a 49.7% increase compared to the base fluid. Finally, a mathematical model is proposed for estimating the TC of Ag–CuO–tungsten oxide/water THNFs. Significant Findings: Comparison of the proposed equation's results with laboratory results shows that the proposed model for the Ag-CuO-tungsten oxide/water THNF was accurate within 20–50 °C and φ=0.1–0.4%.
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