A systematic review of the association between parastomal hernia and sarcopenia

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International journal of colorectal disease


BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial loss of muscle mass that can complicate surgical outcomes and increase morbidity and mortality. Parastomal hernias can occur after any surgery requiring stoma formation and is an area of concern as a complication as it can require a second surgery or emergency surgical intervention. AIM: To assess the impact of sarcopenia on parastomal hernia formation in the postoperative period. METHOD: A systematic search of publications using MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases was conducted in June 2022. Data were extracted, and a narrative synthesis was undertaken. The Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool (CCAT) assessed the quality of the included studies. The systematic review included original research studies, prospective and retrospective designs, and human studies written in English. Reviews, conference papers, opinion papers, and those including participants < 18 years old were excluded. No restrictions on the date of publication and study setting were applied. RESULTS: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and these were conducted between 2016 and 2021; 56% (n = 5) used a retrospective study design. The mean sample size was 242.5 participants (SD = ±358.6). No consistent or standardized way of defining sarcopenia or measuring muscle mass was seen between the studies reviewed. However, 45% (n = 4) of the studies reported a significant relationship between sarcopenia and wound healing complications, including an increased incidence of parastomal and incisional hernias. The average CCAT score was 27.56 (SD = ±4.39). CONCLUSION: There is no definitive relationship between sarcopenia and hernia development; however, four studies found a significant relationship between sarcopenia and hernia formation. It must also be considered that different disease processes can cause sarcopenia either through the disease process itself, or the treatment and management. More research and consistent measurements are needed before comparable and consistent outcomes can be compiled.

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