Feasibility of online adaptive HDR prostate brachytherapy: A novel treatment concept

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of online adaptive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-based high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (HDRPBT) through retrospective simulation of source positioning and catheter swap errors on patient treatment plans. Method: Source positioning errors (catheter shifts in 1 mm increments in the cranial/caudal, anterior/posterior, and medial/lateral directions up to ±6 mm) and catheter swap errors (between the most and least heavily weighted) were introduced retrospectively into DICOM treatment plans of 20 patients that previously received TRUS HDRPBT. Dose volume histogram (DVH) indices were monitored as errors were introduced sequentially into individual catheters, simulating potential errors throughout treatment. Whenever DVH indices were outside institution thresholds: prostate V100% <95%, urethra D0.1cc >118% and rectum Dmax >80%, the plan was adapted using remaining catheters (i.e., simulating previous catheters as previously delivered). The final DVH indices were recorded. Results: Prostate coverage (V100% >95%) could be maintained for source position errors up to 6 mm through online plan adaptation. The source position error at which the urethra D0.1cc and rectum Dmax was able to return to clinically acceptable levels using online adaptation varied between 6 mm to 1 mm, depending on the direction of the source position error and patient anatomy. After introduction of catheter swap errors to patient plans, prostate V100% was recoverable using online adaptation to near original plan characteristics. Urethra D0.1cc and rectum Dmax showed less recoverability. Conclusion: Online adaptive HDRPBT maintains the prostate V100% to clinically acceptable values for majority of directional shifts. However, the current online adaptive method may not correct for source position errors near organs at risk.

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