Mortality Burden due to Exposure to Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter in Hanoi, Vietnam: Health Impact Assessment
International Journal of Public Health
Objective: This study reports the mortality burden due to PM2.5 exposure among adults (age >25) living in Hanoi in 2017. Methods: We applied a health impact assessment methodology with the global exposure mortality model and a PM2.5 map with 3 × 3 km resolution derived from multiple data sources. Results: The annual average PM2.5 concentration for each grid ranged from 22.1 to 37.2 µg/m³. The district average concentration values ranged from 26.9 to 37.2 µg/m³, which means that none of the 30 districts had annual average values below the Vietnam Ambient National Standard of 25 µg/m3. Using the Vietnam Ambient National Standard as the reference standard, we estimated that 2,696 deaths (95% CI: 2,225 to 3,158) per year were attributable to exposure to elevated PM2.5 concentrations in Hanoi. Using the Interim Target 4 value of 10 µg/m3 as the reference standard, the number of excess deaths attributable to elevated PM2.5 exposure was 4,760 (95% CI: 3,958–5,534). Conclusion: A significant proportion of deaths in Hanoi could be avoided by reducing air pollution concentrations to a level consistent with the Vietnam Ambient National Standard.
Open Access Status
This publication may be available as open access
National Foundation for Science and Technology Development