Global Prevalence of Antifungal-Resistant Candida parapsilosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Publication Name

Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease


A reliable estimate of Candida parapsilosis antifungal susceptibility in candidemia patients is increasingly important to track the spread of C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections and define the true burden of the ongoing antifungal resistance. A systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) were conducted aiming to estimate the global prevalence and identify patterns of antifungal resistance. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar electronic databases was conducted on published studies that employed antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) on clinical C. parapsilosis isolates globally. Seventy-nine eligible studies were included. Using meta-analysis of proportions, the overall pooled prevalence of three most important antifungal drugs; Fluconazole, Amphotericin B and Voriconazole resistant C. parapsilosis were calculated as 15.2% (95% CI: 9.2–21.2), 1.3% (95% CI: 0.0–2.9) and 4.7% (95% CI: 2.2–7.3), respectively. Based on study enrolment time, country/continent and AFST method, subgroup analyses were conducted for the three studied antifungals to determine sources of heterogeneity. Timeline and regional differences in C. parapsilosis prevalence of antifungal resistance were identified with the same patterns among the three antifungal drugs. These findings highlight the need to conduct further studies to assess and monitor the growing burden of antifungal resistance, to revise treatment guidelines and to implement regional surveillance to prevent further increase in C. parapsilosis drug resistance emerging recently.

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Funding Sponsor

Universiti Sains Malaysia



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