In Situ Observation and Phase-Field Simulation Framework of Duplex Stainless-Steel Slab during Solidification
The melting and solidification process of S32101 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was investigated using high-temperature confocal microscopy (HTCM). The method of concentric HTCM was employed to study microstructure evolution during the solidification process of S32101 DSS. This method could artificially create a meniscus-shaped solid–liquid interface, which dramatically improved the quality of in situ observations. During the heating stage, γ-austenite transformed to δ-ferrite, and this transformation manifested itself in the form of grain boundaries (GBs) moving. The effects of cooling rate on the solidification pattern and microstructure were revealed in the present research. An enhanced cooling rate led to a finer microstructure, and the solidification pattern changed from cellular to dendritic growth. As the temperature decreased, the commencement and growth of precipitates were observed. In this paper, the experimental data, including parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, and growth mode, were used as the benchmark for the simulation. A simulation framework using Micress linked to a 1D heat transfer model enabling consistent analysis of solidification dynamics in DSS across the whole cast slab was established. Simulating the dendrite growth and elemental segregation of DSS at specific cooling rates shows that this framework can be a powerful tool for solving practical production problems.
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Baosteel-Australia Joint Research and Development Centre