Estimated Choline Intakes and Dietary Sources of Choline in Pregnant Australian Women
(1) Background: Despite the postulated importance of choline during pregnancy, little is known about the choline intake of Australians during pregnancy. In this study, we estimated dietary intakes of choline in early and late pregnancy, compared those intakes to recommendations, and investigated food sources of choline in a group of pregnant women in Australia. (2) Methods: 103 pregnant women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. In early pregnancy (12–16 weeks gestation) and late pregnancy (36 weeks gestation), women completed a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess dietary intake over the previous month. (3) Results: Choline intakes and sources were similar in early and late pregnancy. Median choline intake in early pregnancy was 362 mg/day. Of the women, 39% and 25% had choline intakes above the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) adequate intake (AI) of >440 mg/day and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) AI of >480 mg/day for choline in pregnancy, respectively. Eggs, red meat, nuts, legumes, and dairy accounted for 50% of choline intake, with eggs being the most significant contributor at 17%. (4) Conclusions: Few pregnant women in our study met the AI recommended by the NHMRC and EFSA. In Australia, choline intake in pregnancy may need to be improved, but further work to define choline requirements in pregnancy is required.
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