Longitudinal correlates of sleep duration in young children

Publication Name

Sleep Medicine


Objective: The primary aim of this study was to longitudinally examine potential demographic and screen time correlates of nap duration, nighttime sleep duration, and total sleep duration in young children over two time points. Methods: Data from the supporting Healthy physical AcTive Childcare setting (HATCH) study were analyzed. Participants were 206 toddlers (19–35 months) and preschoolers (36–60 months) in Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Child age, screen time (television, video games), and sleep duration (nap, nighttime) were measured at baseline and six-month follow-up, while other demographic variables were assessed at baseline only using the HATCH parental questionnaire. Mixed models were performed to examine the associations between potential correlates and sleep duration over time. Results: In the multiple regression models, significant correlates of total sleep duration (min/d) were child age (months; B = −3.03; 95%CI:-3.88,-2.19) and parental education (bachelor's degree vs. below bachelor level; B = 29.74, 95%CI:7.43,52.06). Significant correlates of nighttime sleep duration (min/d) included child age (B = −0.81; 95CI%:-1.53,-0.10), child race/ethnicity (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian; B = 15.31; 95%CI:0.38,30.25), household income (>$150,000 vs. <$50,000; B = 32.93, 95%CI:9.80,56.06), television time (B = −0.19, 95%CI:-0.32,-0.05), video games time (B = −0.19, 95%CI: −0.38, −0.01) and total screen time (B = −0.19; 95%CI:-0.29,-0.08). Significant correlates of nap duration (min/d) were child age (B = −2.10; 95%CI:-2.68,-1.51) and race/ethnicity (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian; B = −13.73; 95%CI:-25.78,-1.68). Conclusion: Young children who were non-Caucasian, from lower income families, who had less-educated parents, or who had more screen time tended to have shorter sleep duration. Targeting these demographic groups and screen time appears important for promoting adequate sleep duration in early childhood.

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Funding Sponsor

Canadian Institutes of Health Research



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