Sea-level projections using a NARX-NN model of tide gauge data for the coastal city of Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia

Publication Name

Environmental Science and Pollution Research


The impact of global warming presents an increased risk to the world’s shorelines. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the twenty-first century experienced a severe global mean sea-level rise due to human-induced climate change. Therefore, coastal planners require reasonably accurate estimates of the rate of sea-level rise and the potential impacts, including extreme sea-level changes, floods, and shoreline erosion. Also, land loss as a result of disturbance of shoreline is of interest as it damages properties and infrastructure. Using a nonlinear autoregressive network with an exogenous input (NARX) model, this study attempted to simulate (1991 to 2012) and predict (2013–2020) sea-level change along Merang kechil to Kuala Marang in Terengganu state shoreline areas. The simulation results show a rising trend with a maximum rate of 28.73 mm/year and an average of about 8.81 mm/year. In comparison, the prediction results show a rising sea level with a maximum rate of 79.26 mm/year and an average of about 25.34 mm/year. The database generated from this study can be used to inform shoreline defense strategies adapting to sea-level rise, flood, and erosion. Scientists can forecast sea-level increases beyond 2020 using simulated sea-level data up to 2020 and apply it for future research. The data also helps decision-makers choose measures for vulnerable shoreline settlements to adapt to sea-level rise. Notably, the data will provide essential information for policy development and implementation to facilitate operational decision-making processes for coastal cities.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Universiti Putra Malaysia



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