Heart Failure in Lebanon: A Review of the Literature

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Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia


This research aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature on heart failure (HF) management in Lebanon and identify the implications for policy, practice, education, and research. The design of this research was a systematic review following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Da-tabases were searched using the search terms “heart failure” and “Lebanon” and associated MeSH terms. The abstracts of the selected articles were examined independently by two researchers; the sample characteristics, HF indices, and results of the included studies were extracted. Key findings and trends were synthesized. Eleven papers were reviewed with 2,774 participants (mean age = 57.98, SD = 13.09 years, and the majority [n = 1,494, 53.85%] were male). Over one-third reported having coronary artery disease, and half had hypertension. The mean ejection fraction was 47.28% (SD = 10.44), and the mean length of hospital stay was 7.97 days (SD = 10.28). Self-care was a common theme showing varying but low scores, especially in the self-management subscale. The findings of this study outline the unique characteristics of the population with HF in a Middle Eastern country. These characteristics should be considered when planning interventions in countries facing geopolitical instability in the context of population aging and the rise of noncommunicable diseases.

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