Title

Acoustic Analysis of Slag Foaming in the BOF

Publication Name

Metals

Abstract

The control of slag foam that is produced during the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) process has been the subject of significant research. The behaviour of slag foams is complex. Hence, the control of slag foam in the dynamic process of the BOF is challenging. Acoustic analysis of the BOF is one of the most promising methods for the indirect measurement of slag foam height. This paper reviews different studies on the fundamental behaviour of acoustics in liquid foams and various acoustic studies related to determining the slag foam height during the BOF process. Studies on the BOF have been carried out using both cold water models and plant trials, where acoustic measurements taken directly from the process were analysed. These studies showed that the attenuation of sound through liquid foam was influenced mainly by factors such as viscosity, bubble size, and foam height. Current systems are said to be 70 to 87 per cent accurate in detecting and/or predicting slopping events in the BOF, though there is a lack of systematic data in the literature to fully quantify this accuracy. There have been various attempts to combine sound with vibration and image signals to improve the prediction of slopping events in BOFs. The review substantiates the lack of accuracy of the current systems in determining the slag foam height using acoustic analysis and the need to address fundamental questions about the behaviour of sound in dynamic foam, its reliance on different factors, and the relatability of comparing cold model data to industrial data.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access

Volume

12

Issue

7

Article Number

1142

Funding Number

IH2001000

Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council

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Link to publisher version (DOI)

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/met12071142