Belief-Propagation-Based Low-Complexity Channel Estimation and Detection for Underwater Acoustic Communications With Moving Transceivers
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Achieving reliable communications with low complexity is challenging for underwater acoustic communications with moving transceivers, where the time-varying channels need to be estimated and tracked accurately and data detection needs to be performed with low complexity. In this article, with the use of a superimposed training (ST) scheme, we address this challenge by developing a low-complexity channel estimation and tracking algorithm, which is then integrated with low-complexity data detection in the frequency domain. ST is used to acquire improved channel-tracking capability. Based on belief propagation, we design a message-passing-based low-complexity bidirectional channel estimation (LCE-MP) algorithm, where all computational intensive parts are handled by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, thereby achieving very efficient implementation with logarithmic complexity. Specifically, a message-passing-based fast information collection algorithm is presented to acquire “local” channel estimates, followed by the fusion of local channel estimates to achieve a “global” estimate of the channel. It is shown that the computational complexity per channel tap is only in a logarithmic level for the channel estimation and tracking. Moreover, the ST-scheme-based LCE-MP algorithm is combined with FFT-based data detection and decoding, which are performed in an iterative manner. The overall complexity of channel estimation and data detection is in a logarithmic level, and the system delivers excellent performance thanks to the joint processing. Field experiments were carried out in Jiaozhou Bay in 2019, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique.