Dimethoate residues in Pakistan and mitigation strategies through microbial degradation: a review
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used extensively for crop protection worldwide due to their high water solubility and relatively low persistence in the environment compared to other pesticides, such as organochlorines. Dimethoate is a broad-spectrum insecticide that belongs to the thio-organophosphate group of OPs. It is applied to cash crops, animal farms, and houses. It has been used in Pakistan since the 1960s, either alone or in a mixture with other OPs or pyrethroids. However, the uncontrolled use of this pesticide has resulted in residual accumulation in water, soil, and tissues of plants via the food chain, causing toxic effects. This review article has compiled and analyzed data reported in the literature between 1998 and 2021 regarding dimethoate residues and their microbial bioremediation. Different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae have shown potential for bioremediation. However, an extensive role of bacteria has been observed compared to other microorganisms. Twenty bacterial, three fungal, and one algal genus with potential for the remediation of dimethoate have been assessed. Active bacterial biodegraders belong to four classes (i) alpha-proteobacteria, (ii) gamma-proteobacteria, (iii) beta-proteobacteria, and (iv) actinobacteria and flavobacteria. Microorganisms, especially bacterial species, are a sustainable technology for dimethoate bioremediation from environmental samples. Yet, new microbial species or consortia should be explored.