High-Frequency Ripple Injection Signals for the Effective Utilization of Residential EV Storage in Future Power Grids with Rooftop PV System
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
The electrification of the transport industry is expected to have a major impact on the operation of future distribution grids which includes overloading of components, voltage unbalance and power quality issues. This paper proposes a novel approach to utilize the ripple injection load control signals for the control of EV charging load, considering a large integration of PV systems in the grid. Currently, ripple injection signals are widely used by distribution network service providers (DNSPs) around the world for control of loads such as streetlights and hot water systems. Ripple Injection Signals or Audio Frequency Injection Control (AFIC) signals are the applications of a high-frequency signal superimposed on the 50/60 Hz supply. The proposed control will make use of the existing infrastructure and offers a viable solution where a smart grid solution is not available. AFIC signals can be encoded in binary to carry different information which can be used to set the maximum allowable charging rate of future charging stations or activate the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) mode when necessary. This provides a method to control the EV load depending on the stochastic nature of a future grid. A multimode energy management algorithm has been proposed depending on the load consumption of a particular substation. A power flow simulation study has been used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.