Operational application of numerical modelling for evaluation of hearth condition over a blast furnace campaign: Whyalla No. 2 Blast Furnace 4th campaign

Publication Name

Ironmaking and Steelmaking


The hearth status varies accordingly with individual blast furnace (BF) conditions so that the variation of measured hearth refractory temperature is unique. Over the course of a long BF campaign (typically 15–20 years), refractory temperature in the same furnace can also present different trends. This is certainly the case for Whyalla’s No. 2 Blast Furnace (W2BF) as various significant operational events occurred during its 4th campaign starting from 2004. To understand hearth condition throughout the whole W2BF current campaign including refractory, coke bed and liquid flow behaviour, a methodology was proposed to help explain the refractory temperature measurement (trend) based on simplified and comprehensive fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, measured refractory temperatures and other relevant operational data. Results show that through a consistent assessment based on the various sources over the W2BF campaign, a reliable prediction can be made about the current W2BF hearth condition.

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Computational Infrastructure



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